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PostPosted: Mon Dec 22, 2014 5:11 pm 
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I sometimes thought that [Kubrick] was ruled by his aversions; chief among them—worse than waste, haste, carelessness to details, hugging, and even germs—was bullshit in all its proliferating manifestations, subtle and gross, from the flabby political face telling lies on TV to the most private, much more devastating lies we tell ourselves. Culture lies were especially revolting. Hypocrisy was not some petty human foible, it was the corrupted essence of our predicament, which for Stanley was purely an existential predicament. In terms of narrative, since movies are stories, the most contemptible lie was sentimentality, and the most disgusting lie was sanctimoniousness.

~ SK's longtime friend Michael Herr in Vanity Fair ... ck-199908#

Historic Trauma Transmission:

Over time, the experience of repeated traumatic stressors becomes normalized and incorporated into the cultural expression and expectations of successive generations. This is referred to as Historic Trauma Transmission (HTT).

HTT is a term that was created in the 1980s to describe the cumulative emotional and psychological wounding across generations.

According to the Aboriginal Healing Foundation, HTT is what happens “when the effects of trauma are not resolved in one generation.” They go on to describe that “what we learn to see as ‘normal’ when we are children, we pass on to our own children. Children who learn that physical and sexual abuse is ‘normal’ and who have never dealt with the feelings that come from this may inflict physical abuse and sexual abuse on their own children. The unhealthy ways of behaving that people use to protect themselves can be passed on to children, without them even knowing they are doing so.” ... nsmission/

There is a good description of the traumatizing effects of colonization at the ^^ site, too.

More PhD-backed info here plus contact emails:

Significant original research on the mechanisms of transmission of intergenerational violent trauma has been done by Daniel Schechter. His work builds on pioneers in this field such as: Judith Kestenberg, Dori Laub, Selma Fraiberg, Alicia Lieberman, Susan Coates, Charles Zeanah, Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Yael Danieli, Rachel Yehuda and others. Schechter's work has included the study of experimental interventions that may lead to changes of trauma-associated mental representations that can help intergenerational cycles of violence.[3][4]

The below is relevant because SK Jew + Holocaust:

Collective Trauma
Rehabilitation of survivors becomes extremely difficult when entire nation has experienced such severe traumas as war, genocide, torture, massacre, etc. Treatment is hardly effective when everybody is traumatized. Trauma remains chronic and would reproduce itself as long as social causes are not addressed and perpetrators continue to enjoy impunity. The whole society may suffer from an everlasting culture of pain. (1)

During liberation war in Algeria, the Algerian Psychiatrist Frantz Omar Fanon found his practice of treatment of native Algerians ineffective due to the continuation of the horror of a colonial war. He emphasized about the social origin of traumas, joined the liberation movement and urged oppressed people to purge themselves of their degrading traumas through their collective liberation struggle. He made the following remarks in his letter of resignation, as the Head of the Psychiatry Department at the Blida-Joinville Hospital in Algeria:

"If psychiatry is the medical technique that aims to enable man no longer to be a stranger to his environment, I owe it to myself to affirm that the Arab, permanently an alien in his own country, lives in a state of absolute depersonalization.” (2) Inculcation of horror and anxiety, through widespread torture, massacre, genocide and similar coercive measures has happened frequently in human history. There are plenty of examples in our modern history. Tyrants have always used their technique of “psychological artillery” in an attempt to cause havoc and confusion in the minds of people and hypnotize them with intimidation and cynicism. The result is a collective trauma that will pass through generations. There is no magic formula of rehabilitation. Collective trauma can be alleviated through cohesive and collective efforts such as recognition, remembrance, solidarity, communal therapy and massive cooperation.

A chapter on "Reexperiencing" as trauma processing:

Principles of Trauma Therapy: A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment
By John N. Briere, Catherine Scott ... ng&f=false

The Childhood Origins of the Holocaust

Lloyd deMause

The following speech was given on September 28, 2005 at Klagenfurt University, Austria.

Because early traumas are imprinted indelibly in the early fear system — the amygdalan “psychotic core” of the brain — every detail of traumatic German and Austrian childrearing was restaged during the Holocaust. As Jews were locked into the concentration camps, they were told: “This is a death camp….You’ll be eaten by lice; you’ll rot in your own shit, you filthy shitface.”[86] As Germans and Austrians enduring their own filthy swaddling bands as infants, Jews were also made to live in their own filth, forced to lie in barracks “awash with urine and feces,” forced to eat their own feces, and finally died in showers “covered all over with their excrement.”[87] German toilet training was even restaged in precise detail, such as by having the ghetto latrine supervised by a “guard with a big clock, whom the Germans dressed as a rabbi and called the ‘shit-master.’”[88] Jews on the way to concentration camps were tightly crammed into cattle cars, in the dark, having to defecate and urinate on themselves just like they were as infants. The cattle car trips and the endless “death marches” of Jews restaged the endless movement from family to family of turn-of-century German and Austrian children. Even the beating of Jews would often restage the hallowed German practice of insisting that the child not cry out — so the parent wouldn’t feel guilty — with Jews in camps being rewarded with some food if they didn’t cry out while being beaten by their guards.[89] Every abusive practice of childrearing at the turn of the century that was imprinted in their early fear network, their “psychotic core,” was released like a time bomb. The Judenfrage was transparently a Kinderfrage restaged.

How the Jews were different - from the same speech:

Since Jewish mothers almost always breast-fed their babies and since Jewish children were far less authoritarian than their neighbors,[76] Jews were far more liberal as a group than the rest of Germany; for instance, Jews comprised the majority of Viennese Social Democrats. They had to be exterminated to purify the nation; as Goebbels put it, “The Jews are like the lice of civilized mankind. Somehow they must be exterminated, or they will invariably resume their tormentive and molesting role,”[77] fearing that Germans were “about to perish of the Jewish disease.” Himmler expressed the childhood source of the Holocaust similarly: “Antisemitism is exactly like delousing. The removal of lice is not an ideological question, but a matter of hygiene.”[78]

This may be relevant too - Vicarious Traumatization:

“Status Indians” are wards of the Canadian federal government, a paternalistic legal relationship that illustrates the historical imperial notion that Aboriginal peoples are "children" requiring control and direction to bring them into more "civilized" colonial ways of life. As an 1876 Department of Indian Affairs report explains:

Our Indian legislation generally rests on the principle, that the aborigines are to be kept in a condition of tutelage and treated as wards or children of the State. ...the true interests of the aborigines and of the State alike require that every effort should be made to aid the Red man in lifting himself out of his condition of tutelage and dependence, and that is clearly our wisdom and our duty, through education and every other means, to prepare him for a higher civilization by encouraging him to assume the privileges and responsibilities of full citizenship."2
http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.c ... tatus.html

Several references/parallels to the Holocaust in the treatment of Indians here:

“You say that you are our Father and I am your son. We say, We will not be like Father and Son, but like Brothers. This wampum belt confirms our words. These two rows will symbolize two paths or two vessels, traveling down the same river together. One, a birch bark canoe, will be for the onkwehón:we, their laws, their customs and their ways. The other, a ship, will be for the white people and their laws, their customs and their ways. We shall each travel the river together, side by side, but in our boat. Neither of us will make compulsory laws or interfere in the internal affairs of the other. Neither of us will try to steer the other’s vessel.”

“As long as the Sun shines upon this Earth, that is how long OUR Agreement will stand; Second, as long as the Water still flows; and Third, as long as the Grass Grows Green at a certain time of the year. Now we have Symbolized this Agreement and it shall be binding forever as long as Mother Earth is still in motion.“
~Rotinonshón:ni-Dutch Two Row Wampum Treaty of 1613

The dark hidden part of the Canadian history is the Indian Act of 1876 and its ongoing legacy. The Indian Act was used as inspiration for policies of apartheid in South Africa and, some would say, Palestine, among others around the world.

It was first passed in 1876, yet more than a century later it has scarcely changed in tone and direction. It is a pain to the First Nations peoples whose destinies it controls, and an embarrassment to the nation of Canada, for its abandonment has been a subject of perpetual debate for the last 50 years. To anyone who has looked into it for 10 minutes, the very existence of this strange piece of legislation must remain a source of astonishment and dismay. Yet it persists. Most Canadians know little about the Indian Act. Though its development in the second half of the last century is one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of Canada, Canadians remain relentlessly ignorant of it.


The first Canadian Indian Act of 1876 is passed, consolidating and revising all existing law affecting Indians in existing provinces and setting certain responsibilities of the federal government pursuant to the British North American Act of 1867. The Indian Act adopted an explicit vision of assimilation, in which First Nations would be encouraged to leave behind their Indian status and traditional cultures and become full members of the broader Canadian society. In this context, First Nations were viewed as children or wards of the state, to which the government had a paternalistic duty to protect and civilize. This underlying philosophy was clearly expressed by The Hon. David Laird told the House of Commons that “they should not attempt to act in any way contrary to the views of the Indians, at least as far as their right to property were concerned”. He said this was “the policy of the Administration.” However, Laird also said, “Indians must either be treated as minors or as white men.” The Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs said that “the legal status of Indians of Canada is that of minors with the Government as their guardians.”
“Our Indian legislation generally rests on the principle, that the aborigines are to be kept in a condition of tutelage and treated as wards or children of the State. …the true interests of the aborigines and of the State alike require that every effort should be made to aid the Red man in lifting himself out of his condition of tutelage and dependence, and that is clearly our wisdom and our duty, through education and every other means, to prepare him for a higher civilization by encouraging him to assume the privileges and responsibilities of full citizenship.”
It is important to note the change in Aboriginal policy from the Royal Proclamation, 1763 (being Allies) to the first Canadian Indian Act of 1876 (now Wards of Canada). The first Indian Act maintained the Crown’s role as trustee of Indian interests, but had a very different view of that relationship. No longer were Aboriginal groups viewed as autonomous quasi-nations within the broader Canadian political system, to which the Crown had an obligation to protect from abuse and encroachment from European colonial society. Moreover, many of the changes to the Act granted the government greater powers to force Indians onto Reserves and expropriate their lands for the purpose of non-Indian use (A Treaty violation). In the Act, a Band had to have its meeting in the presence of the Superintendent General or his Indian agent (Today, Band Council Resolution or BCR must be forwarded to government). Authority was given to the Governor in Council to depose Chiefs and their traditional tribal systems. Provisions were added to allow the Superintendent General to exclude illegitimate children, those who were absent in a foreign country for more than five years without permission, and those who had taken land scrip.

Between 1876 and 1950, the purpose of the amendments to the Indian Act was to strengthen the philosophy of enfranchisement, assimilation and civilization to government control. Moreover, many of the changes to the Act granted the government greater powers to move the First Nations and expropriate their lands for the purpose of non-Aboriginal use. It was always about getting the control of the land away from the First Nations. Key amendments to the Indian Act during this period include:

1874: Being intoxicated on- or off -reserve is punishable by one month in jail. Failure to name the seller of the alcohol could lead to additional 14 days imprisonment.
1876: Defining Indian as non-person of Canada.
1876: The creation of an officer, the Superintendant-General.
1876: Crown Control of Band Funds: the proceeds arising for the sale or lease of any Indian lands, or from timber, hay, stone, minerals or other valiables thereon…, shall be paid to the Receiver General for the credit of the Indian fund. [Note to Canadians: You, as taxpayers are not paying for Indian Affairs budget. This comes from the revenue generated of Canada's natural resources.]
1876: Control of Band Membership. Defining who is Indian.
1876: Reserves as an instrument for segregation of First Peoples from Canada. “No Trespassing” signs were posted on the boundaries off reserves.
1876: Attacking historic status of women as leaders.
1880: Development of Indian Affairs.
1880: Enfranchisement Act (Attacking the educated, Indian Status and Treaty Rights)
1880: Minister the power to dispose any Chief or Headmen.
1881: Indian Agents made Justices of the Peace to control every aspect of Indians and their lands.
1884: Suppressing Indian disorder (3 or more Indians gathered is inciting riot).
1884: Disarming First Nations.
1884: Compulsory attendance to residential schools (mandatory for Aboriginal children from the age of 5 to the age of 17).
1885: Pass system on reserves. Indians had to pay a fee to an Indian Agent and to get his permission to leave the reserve.
1885: Indians are not allowed to use modern machinery.
1888: Implementing a permit system regulating control what Indians could buy, sell or transact.
1889: Attacking and eliminating traditional tribal governance systems. Introducing Band Elections.
1894: Attacking Culture, Language and Reserves: Prohibition of traditional Indigenous ceremonies, such as Potlatches, Give-aways, Sun Dance or any traditional gatherings.
1894: Removal of band control over non-Aboriginals living on reserves. This power was transferred to the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.
1905: Power to remove First Nation peoples from reserves near towns with more than 8,000 people.
1910: The “Final Solution to End the Indian Problem” is the response of government to the reports of the high deaths rates children of the Indian residential schools. In British Columbia alone, the death of 4,000 children between the age of 5 to 18 years old were reported by the Truth and Reconciliation of Canada in 2013. See website:
1911: Power to expropriate portions of reserves for roads, railways and other public works, as well as to move an entire reserve away from a municipality if it was deemed expedient. (Indians out of sight – out of mind)
1912: Power to override Treaties.
1914: War measures powers of crown, Band funds spent without Indian consent, lands leased without a surrender.
1914: All dances and ceremonies outlawed.
1918: Power to lease out uncultivated reserve lands to non-Aboriginals if the new leaseholder would use it for farming or pasture.
1920: Unilateral Enfranchisement of Band Members, attacking the educated and war veterens.
In 1922, Dr. Peter Bryce, Canada’s first chief medical health officer, published The Story of a National Crime, a book that outlined statistical evidence that Canada’s Aboriginal population was being destroyed by tuberculosis and the federal government had the means to stop it. Also, reported that the Indian Residential schools were a death trap. Children up to 50 percent of them lost their lives to disease, malnutrition, neglect, and abuse. (One in two children!) The government ignored Bryce’s warnings and fired him for publishing reports on the tuberculosis crisis.
1922: Requirement that western Indians seek official permission before appearing in Indian “costume” in any public dance, show, exhibition, stampede or pageant.
1927: Prohibition of anyone (Aboriginal or otherwise) from soliciting funds for Aboriginal legal claims without special license from the Superintendent General. This amendment granted the government absolute control over the ability of Aboriginals to pursue land claims.
1927: Forbade First Nations People from forming political organizations.
1927: Denied Aboriginal Peoples from speaking their native language.
1929: Involuntary Sterilization Laws targeting females at Indian residential schools could legally be made infertile.
1930: NRTA: Transfer of natural resources to provincial governments to further distances First Nations from their Lands and Territories. A further erosion of Treaty Rights.
1930: Prohibition of pool hall owners from allowing entrance of an Indian who “by inordinate frequenting of a pool room either on or off an Indian reserve misspends or wastes his time or means to the detriment of himself, his family or household.”
1933: Voluntary Enfranchisement to encourage working off the reserves by becoming Non-status Indians.
1940′s and early 1950′s: Government conducted Nutrition Research and Human Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and on First Nations children in Indian residential schools.
1945: First Nations Canadian Veterans under the the Veterans’ Land Act denied benefits. “Good enough to give their lives abroad – forgotten at home.” Aboriginal people have fought for Canada in every overseas conflict in the twentieth century even though its a treaty right not to fight in world conflicts.
1947: The Jenness Liquidation Plan: The Liquidation of Canada’s Indian Problem within Twenty-five Years.
1951: (The Act is revised to allow some freedoms) Minister of Indian Affairs is granted broader discretionary powers over the implementation of the Act as well as the daily lives of Indians on reserves (from birth to the grave). Parliament would allow that provincial law to apply to Indians on reser
ves. [After 1952, the Act remains substantially unrevised to 1990's except in regards to the so-called "discrimination against Indian women (Bill C-31)."]
1960: An Indian person could now have the right to vote federally without having to give up their Indian status.
1961: Compulsory enfranchisement provisions were removed from the Indian Act, meaning that First Nations could no longer be forced to give up their Indian status.
Canada’s genocide legacy continues today under the Indian Act:

Genocide – Systemic, planned annihilation/destruction of a racial, political or cultural group.

The Indian Act made it very clear “the term person means an individual other than an Indian” in Canada. This simple provision allowed Canadians to treat Indians as non-person or sub-human. The Indians are effectively removed from all basic human rights. A Mohawk summed up the Indian Act this way; “the Indian Agent’s duties are becoming more and more like the commander of an internment camp of a defeated enemy.” Each Indian, like any prisoner of war is given a Indian Status number that over time became like a surname. His movements are restricted and governed, he could not buy or sell the products of his labour, and he could not practice his religion nor raise his children in his religious tradition. The Indian Act failed to completely subjugate the Indigenous peoples and religious ceremonies are conducted in isolated places.

Smallpox vaccine and care for Whites, but not Indians for the BC epidemic of 1865 - that should shock some folks: ... rates.html

The point is mostly real world examples - that the institutional policy in Canada is STILL that Native Peoples are as children and their legal status is STILL that of children re the Indian Act. Some of the historic are amendments to the Indian Act are so barbaric as to be unbelievable:

"1876: Defining Indian as non-person of Canada."

"1940′s and early 1950′s: Government conducted Nutrition Research and Human Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and on First Nations children in Indian residential schools."

The parallels to the Holocaust are at times even more explicit:
The attitude of the American government against the

We are not going to let a few thieving, ragged Indians check and stop the progress of the railroads.... I regard the railroad as the most important element now in progress to facilitate the military interests of our Frontier

We must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination, men, women and children. (The Sioux must) feel the superior power of the Government

During an assault, the soldiers cannot pause to distinguish between male and female, or even discriminate as to age.

In an 1867 letter to Grant, Sherman referred to his policy against the native Americans as “the final solution to the Indian problem”. ... herman.htm

Also, the policy of sending Native children to res. School where 50% of them died,(death camps?) is a better example of genocidal policy than spreading small pox blankets (which may be apocryphal) because the involvement of government/ public institutions cannot be denied or downplayed.

Also, this info is not commonly known, much of which has only come out in the last 20 years or less, so it will be fresh to readers.

Look at this - Hitler's inspiration:

Adolph Hitler‟s Interest in the American "Wild West‟
Hitler liked to draw an example of mass murder
from American history. He viewed the fighting
between cowboys and Indians in racial terms.
In many of his speeches he referred with
admiration to the victory of the white race in
settling the American continent and driving out
the inferior peoples, the Indians. (James Pool, “Hitler
and His Secret Partners” 1998)

He was very interested in the way the Indian population
had rapidly declined due to epidemics and starvation
when the United States government forced them to live
on reservations. He recognized the American
government's forced migrations of the Indians over great
distances to barren reservation land as a deliberate policy
of extermination. (Pool 1998)"

Hitler's concept of concentration camps as
well as the practicality of genocide owed much, as
he himself claimed, to his studies of British and
North American history.

... and for the Indians in the Wild West. [He] often
praised to his inner circle the efficiency of America's
extermination by starvation and uneven combat of the
„Red Savages‟ who could not be tamed by captivity.”
(John Toland, "Adolf Hitler" Vol II, 1976)

The only thing new in this world is the history you don't know.

PostPosted: Mon Dec 22, 2014 5:16 pm 
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Location: Hope, BC
Principles of Trauma Therapy: A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment

By John Briere, Catherine Scott, SAGE Publications, Aug 30, 2012 ... ng&f=false

You may find some relevant material in these articles too - all from here
The Treatment of Traumatic Memories: synthesis, realization, and integration
Originally published in Dissociation,1993, 6(2/3), 162-180. [Posted here with permission of the authors and Journal Editor.]

Onno van der Hart and colleagues integrate Pierre Janet's dissociation theory with contemporary trauma-based models of therapy. They begin by describing multiple personality disorder (now DID) as a disorder of non-realization, and then explore the nature of traumatic memories and the dissociative reactions they evoke, before presenting a phase-oriented treatment model for trauma-focused therapy with dissociative patients. Their non-abreactive treatment approach is appropriate for resolution of traumatic memories in adult survivors of chronic childhood abuse. 118 references.

Trauma-related Structural Dissociation of the Personality
Citation: Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Van der Hart, O. & Steele, K. (2004). Trauma-related structural dissociation of the personality. Trauma Information Pages website, January 2004. Web URL: .

[This article is published here for the first time. Copyright by Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis; posted at with permission.]

Ellert Nijenhuis, writing with colleagues Onno van der Hart and Kathy Steele, presents the most detailed explanation of their theory of structural dissociation as a response to traumatization. Describing dissociation as a failure to synthesize and personify terrifying experiences, this article explores the evolutionary and trauma-related origins of this response, addresses the increasing complexity of structural dissociation into secondary and tertiary forms that may occur in cases of chronic abuse and neglect, and summarizes recent psychobiological research concerning the theory. This provides a detailed theoretical rationale for the authors' phase-oriented treatment approach. 159 references.

Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: One Method for Processing Traumatic Memory
Article published in the electronic journal Traumatology, 6(3), article 3 (October 2000).

In this article, Pat Ogden and Kekuni Minton describe their somatic (body) clinical approach to facilitate processing of unassimilated sensorimotor reactions to trauma; this sensorimotor sequencing, in turn, facilitates emotional and cognitive processing. Sensorimotor Psychotherapy requires that the clinician closely monitor sequential physical movements and sensations associated with motor impulses in the client -- muscular tension, trembling, changes in breathing, posture, and heart rate. The article describes physical defensive responses, "bottom-up" processing, and a modulation model; case examples illustrate the authors' clinical technique.

Childhood Trauma, the Neurobiology of Adaptation, and Use-dependent Development of the Brain: How States become Traits
Article published in Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(4), 271-291.

Bruce Perry and his colleagues argue that infants and young children may be more vulnerable to traumas than adults -- that they are not resilient, but malleable. They consider neurobiological consequences of repeated dissociative or hyperarousal responses on developing brain organization, and conclude that the more plastic developing brain may be more vulnerable to disruptions related to these responses. Evolutionary advantages of gender differences in responses to trauma (hyperarousal by males; dissociation in females) are considered briefly, and clinical implications are discussed. Includes about 70 references.

The Neurophysiology of Dissociation and Chronic Disease
Published in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2001, 26(1), 73-91.

Dr. Robert Scaer examines dissociation and PTSD from the perspective of a neurologist. In this speculative article, he describes dissociation in terms of the freeze/immobility response observed in animals facing overwhelming threat. He also proposes a model of PTSD linked to autonomic dysregulation -- and maintained by kindling, dorsal vagal tone and endorphinergic rewards -- contributing to further dissociation. Finally, the autonomic dysregulation underlying dissociation and PTSD is discussed in the context of a diverse set of chronic diseases of unknown origin. 74 references.

Introduction to Survival Strategies
This is a version of an important chapter from Valent's 1998 book, From Survival to Fulfillment: A framework for the life-trauma dialectic, published in Philadelphia by Bruner/Mazel.

Paul Valent describes eight survival strategies in response to trauma -- "stress responses which include specific adaptive and maladaptive, biological, psychological and social constituents". Valent's survival strategies evolved as discrete phylogenetic templates to aid survival following specific stressors. Together, survival strategies offer a framework for categorizing classes of traumatic responses and events beyond PTSD's typical fight or flight responses. When trauma responses are unsuccessful, this framework may also help clarify differences that are important in treatment.

Van der Hart & Brom (2000)
When the Victim Forgets: trauma-induced amnesia and its assessment in Holocaust Survivors
Originally published in A. Shalev, R. Yehuda & A. McFarlane (Eds.) International Handbook of Human Response to Trauma, pp. 233-248.

Onno van der Hart and Danny Brom present an overview of relevant literature on amnesia among survivors of the Holocaust. Following Janet's (1893/1901) continuum of localized-, selective-, and generalized amnesia, they describe several cases of survivors' trauma-induced amnesia of the Holocaust (with or without dissociative re-experiencing). In conclusion, the authors discuss reasons for the lack of research attention to this complex issue, possible causes of amnesia among Holocaust survivors, and the absence of delayed recall in this population. 57 references.

Dissociation, Affect Dysregulation & Somatization: the complex nature of adaptation to trauma
This paper originally appeared in the American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7), Festschrift Supplement, 83-93.

This article reports results from the DSM-IV Field Trial for PTSD demonstrating a complex PTSD syndrome in people traumatized at an early age, or suffering from prolonged interpersonal trauma. Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation represent a chronic adaptation to emotional trauma, and characterize complex PTSD (e.g., DESNOS). Clinicians should understand how complex trauma must be treated differently from acute or "simple" PTSD. The authors discuss implications for treatment and for PTSD diagnostic criteria. Includes four tables and about 90 references.

Phenomenology and Psychobiology of the Intergenerational Response to Trauma
Pre-publication text version of Chapter 37 (pp. 639-655) Originally published in: Y. Danieli (Ed.) International Handbook: Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma. New York: Plenum Press, 1998.

In this draft chapter (a second revision, lacking the 5 figures), Rachel Yehuda and colleagues briefly review literature describing the effects of the Holocaust on its survivors and their offspring. They then describe three different approaches to studying PTSD symptoms in Holocaust survivors and adult offspring of Holocaust survivors, and report preliminary results from three in-progress studies. About 60 references.

The Compulsion to Repeat the Trauma: Re-enactment, revictimization, and masochism
This article first appeared in Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, (2), 389-411.

Repetition of traumatic experiences can occur on behavioral, emotional, physiologic, and neuroendocriniologic levels, but invariably causes suffering. In this 1989 article, Bessel van der Kolk describes the diversity of traumatic re-enactments, and addresses relationships to social attachment and separation, traumatic bonding, state-dependent learning, addiction to trauma, sex differences, and biological responses to trauma. Treatment implications are also discussed. 147 references.

All work and no play make Jack an adult boy:

Janet75 thought that traumatic memories of traumatic events persist as unassimilated fixed ideas that act as foci for the development of alternate states of consciousness, including dissociative phenomena, such as fugue states, amnesias, and chronic states of helplessness and depression. Unbidden memories of the trauma may return as physical sensations, horrific images or nightmares, behavioral reenactments, or a combination of these. Janet showed how traumatized individuals become fixated on the trauma: difficulties in assimilating subsequent experiences as well. It is "as if their personality development has stopped at a certain point and cannot expand anymore by the addition or assimilation of new elements."76


All primates subjected to early abuse and deprivation are vulnerable to engage in violent relationships with peers as adults. Males tend to be hyperagressive, and females fail to protect themselves and their offspring against danger. Chronic physiologic hyperarousal persists, particularly to stimuli reminiscent of the trauma. Later stresses tend to be experienced as somatic states, rather than as specific events that require specific means of coping. Thus victims of trauma may respond to contemporary stimuli as a return of the trauma, without conscious awareness that past injury rather than current stress is the basis of their physiologic emergency responses


The presence of an attachment figure provides people with the security necessary to explore their life experiences and to interrupt the inner or social isolation that keeps people stuck in repetitive patterns. Both the etiology and the cure of trauma-related psychological disturbance depend fundamentally on security of interpersonal attachments. Once the traumatic experiences have been located in time and place, a person can start making distinctions between current life stresses and past trauma and decrease the impact of the trauma on present experience.137

When the persons who are supposed to be the sources of safety and nurturance become simultaneously the sources of danger against which protection is needed, children maneuver to re-establish some sense of safety. Instead of turning on their caregivers and thereby losing hope for protection, they blame themselves. They become fearfully and hungrily attached and anxiously obedient.24 Bowlby16 calls this "a pattern of behavior in which avoidance of them competes with his desire for proximity and care and in which angry behavior is apt to become prominent."

The Overlook:

Walker145 and Dutton and Painter31 have noted that the bond between batter and victim in abusive marriages resembles the bond between captor and hostage .... Walker145 first applied ethnology to the study of traumatic bonding in such couples. A central component is captivity, the lack of permeability, and the absence of outside support or influence.31,62,119,145 The victim organizes her life completely around pleasing her captor and his demands. As Dutton and Painter point out, "her compliance legitimates his demands, builds up a store of repressed anger and frustration on her part (which may surface in her goading him or fighting back during an actual argument, leading to escalating violence), and systematically eliminates opportunities for her to build up a supportive network which could eventually assist her in leaving the relationship."

The only thing new in this world is the history you don't know.

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